Environmental Risks

Weather, terrain and night hazards often produce risks that can overpower any combination of pilot and aircraft capabilities.

Environmental risks, one of the four broad hazard categories the FAA identifies in its PAVE acronym (see the sidebar at the bottom of the opposite page), typically involve weather and terrain, but also can include traffic, navaids, obstacles and even wake turbulence. When several such hazards are present at the same time, they can easily […]
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